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Armenia(亚美尼亚)

2010-04-23 11:59:56 作者:english88 来源:english88 浏览次数:0 网友评论 0

ARMENIA
History   
Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the rules of var

ARMENIA\

History  

Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the rules of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman.  In 1813 and 1828, present-day Armenia (consisting of the Erivan and Karabakh khanates) was temporarily incorporated into the Russian Empire. After the war between the Ottoman Empire and Russia from 1877 to 1878, when the Reform Law deprived Armenians of their advantageous position (the law gave Muslims and non-Muslims equal rights), Armenians demanded that Russia withdraw from their invaded lands, give sovereignty to Armenia and enact reforms to improve the position of the Armenians.  After a short-lived independent republic established after the Bolshevik Revolution in Petrograd, Armenia was incorporated into the USSR, between 1922 to 1936 as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (with Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan), and from 1936 to 1991 as the Armenian SSR.

Armenia remained preoccupied by a long conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, an Armenian-populated enclave that Stalin had placed in Soviet Azerbaijan. A military conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan began in 1988, and the fighting escalated after both countries gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.  By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, Armenian forces Map of Armeniacontrolled not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also the surrounding districts of Azerbaijan proper.

Geography   

Aremenia is a landlocked country in the southern Caucasus, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.  It is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, Azerbaijan to the east and Iran (Persia), and the Nakhichevan exclave of Azerbaijan to the south.

Armenia lacks a seacoast or a port.  The terrain is mostly mountainous, with fast flowing rivers and few forests. The climate is highland continental: hot summers and cold winters. The land rises to 4,095m above sea-level at Mount Aragats, and no point is below 400 m. Mount Ararat, regarded by the Armenians as a symbol of their land, is the highest mountain in the region.

Political System   

The unicameral parliament (also called the National Assembly) currently is controlled by a coalition of three political parties.  Armenians voted overwhelmingly for independence in a September 1991 referendum.   In 1999, as the Prime Minister Vazgen Sargsian, parliament and six other officials were killed in the attack on the National Assembly, the country experienced a period of political instability. President Robert Kocharian was successful in riding out the unrest, and currently rules with the support of the parliamentary coalition.

Education System    

The law requires eight to ten years of schooling, from the ages 6-16. State schools are still the norm in Armenia, with classes normally lasting 4-6 hours, but lots of homework rounding out the program.   General secondary education lasts for 2 years after completion of the first two stages: primary school (3 years) and intermediate school (5 years).  On completion, students have the opportunity to attend a 2-year college (vocational school) or university.  Armenia has an extensive network of universities and institutes, all of which offer graduate programs. The few leading educational institutions include Yerevan State University, State Engineering University, Yerevan State Medical University, the Armenian Academy of Agriculture, Yerevan State Institute for Russian and Foreign Languages, and Yerevan Komitas Conservatory.

Officially guaranteed for all citizens free of charge, education has in fact become a private system, deeply threatened by lack of funding and support from the government and outside sources.   Kindergartens are considered essential to the education process, and the closing of many of them has created a private system, with families scrambling to raise the money to place their kids.  The system continues into primary schools, where parents have to purchase expensive textbooks, supplies, even provide supplemental income to teachers, who are often unpaid for months at a time.

Population  

Armenia has an estimated population of 3 million.  Widespread emigration is one of the most serious problems Armenia has been facing since the break-up of the USSR.  It is estimated that as many as one-third of Armenia"s population lives in Russia illegally, and that Armenia has no more than about two million residents.

Capital      Yerevan

Language   

Armenians have their own highly distinctive alphabet and language.  96% of the people in the country speak Armenian, while 75.8% of the population speaks Russian as well. Most adults in Yerevan can communicate in Russian, while English is increasing in popularity.

Religion   

The predominant religion in Armenia is Christianity.  Over 95% of Armenian Christians belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church, a form of Oriental (Non-Chalcedonian) Orthodoxy, which is a very ritualistic, conservative church, roughly comparable to the Coptic and Syrian churches. Armenia also has a population of evangelical Protestants, Catholics and followers of the Armenian traditional religion. The Yazidi Kurds, who live in the western part of the country, practice Yazidism. The Armenian Catholic Church is headquartered in Bzoummar, Lebanon.

Economy   

The Armenian Government had successfully launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic liberalization program that resulted in positive growth rates in 1995-2003. Armenia joined the WTO in January 2003. Armenia has also managed to slash inflation, stabilize the local currency (the dram), and privatize most small- and medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy shortages Armenia suffered in the early and mid-1990s have been offset by the energy supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor.  Armenia is now a net energy exporter, although it does not have sufficient generating capacity to replace Metsamor, which is under international pressure to close. The electricity distribution system was privatized in 2002. Armenia"s severe trade imbalance has been offset somewhat by international aid and foreign direct investment. Economic ties with Russia remain close, especially in the energy sector.

Currency C dram    

The Dram (currency code AMD) is the monetary unit of Armenia.  The word "dram" translates into English as "money", and is cognate with the Greek drachma.  The Central Bank of Armenia has the exclusive right of issuing the national currency according to Armenian Law.  The exchange rate was 1USD to 452 DRAM in July 2005.

Main Sporting Events and Achievement in Olympics   

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