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Yemen(也门)

2010-04-23 11:52:53 作者:english88 来源:english88 浏览次数:0 网友评论 0


YEMEN 
History   
Yemen was one of the oldest centres of civilization in the Near East. Between the 9th century BC and the 6th century AD, it was part of the Minaean, Sabaean, Himyarite, Qatabanian, Had

YEMEN

\History  

Yemen was one of the oldest centres of civilization in the Near East. Between the 9th century BC and the 6th century AD, it was part of the Minaean, Sabaean, Himyarite, Qatabanian, Hadhramawtian, and Awsanian kingdoms, which controlled the lucrative spice trade. It was known to the Romans as "Arabia Felix" ("Happy Arabia") because of the riches its trade generated; Augustus Caesar attempted to annex it, but the expedition failed, but Persian King of Kings were more successful and Yemen became a Persian province in 597/8 under a Persian satrap. In the 7th century, Islamic caliphs began to exert control over the area. After this caliphate broke up, the former north Yemen came under control of Imams of various dynasties usually of the Zaidi sect, who established a theocratic political structure that survived until modern times.

Egyptian Sunni caliphs occupied much of north Yemen throughout the 11th century. By the 16th century and again in the 19th century, north Yemen was part of the Ottoman Empire, and in some periods its Imams exerted control over south Yemen.  North Yemen became independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1918 and became a republic, known as Yemen Arab Republic (YAR) in 1962.

British interests in the area which would later become South Yemen, began to grow when in 1832, British East India Company forces captured the port of Aden, to provide a coaling station for ships en route to India.  In 1963 fighting between Egyptian forces and British-led Saudi-financed guerrillas in the Yemen Arab Republic spread to South Arabia (an organization of states within the British Aden Protectorate) with the formation of the National Liberation Front (NLF), who hoped to force the British out of South Arabia.  In 1966 the British announced that all its forces would be withdrawn at independence. The security situation deteriorated with the creation of the socialist Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen (FLOSY) which started to attack the NLF in a bid for power, as well as attacking the British.  On 30 November 1967 the British finally pulled out, leaving Aden under NLF control. The Federation of South Arabia collapsed and Southern Yemen became independent as the People"s Republic of South Yemen.

In June 1969, a radical Marxist wing of NLF gained power and changed the country"s name on 1 December 1970, to the People"s Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY).  The PDRY established close ties with the Soviet Union, Red China, Cuba, and radical Palestinians.  In 1970, the southern government adopted a Communist governmental system.  Unlike East and West Germany, the two Yemens remained relatively friendly, though relations were often strained. In 1972 it was declared unification would eventually occur.  In May 1988, the YAR and PDRY governments came to an understanding that considerably reduced tensions including agreement to renew discussions concerning unification, to establish a joint oil exploration area along their undefined border, to demilitarize the border, and to allow Yemenis unrestricted border passage on the basis of only a national identification card.  In November 1989, the leaders of the YAR (Ali Abdullah Saleh) and the PDRY (Ali Salim al-Baidh) agreed on a draft unity constitution originally drawn up in 1981. The Republic of Yemen (ROY) was declared on 22 May 1990. Saleh became President, and al-Baidh became Vice President.

Geography  

Yemen is in Southwest Asia, in the \south of Arabia, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, west of Oman and south of Saudi Arabia.  Its territory includes the island of Socotra, about 350 km to the south.

Political System  

Yemen is a republic with a bicameral legislature. Under the constitution, an elected president, an elected 301-seat House of Representatives, and an appointed 111-member Shura Council share power. The president is head of state, and the prime minister is head of government. The constitution provides that the president be elected by popular vote from at least two candidates endorsed by Parliament; the prime minister is appointed by the president.  The presidential term of office is 7 years, and the parliamentary term of elected office is 6 years. Suffrage is universal over 18.  The constitution calls for an independent judiciary. The former northern and southern legal codes have been unified.

Education System   

Between 1970 and 1994, the enrollment grew from less than 250,000 to 2.75 million. This increase in absolute enrollment has come against the backdrop of one of the highest population growth rates in the world.  Only half of the students who begin primary school complete the cycle, leaving far too many children without basic mastery of language and mathematics and the acquisition of life skills.  Most Yemeni children attend school, but many stay in school for only a few years. Yemen has one the lowest literacy rates of the Middle East.  The Literacy rate was estimated to be Women 26% and men 53% \.  The two different school systems of the two parts of Yemen, are now being put under changes in order to make it into one system (closer to the northern than the southern).  Most youths from the Yemeni social elite prefers to take their higher education abroad, and the university system of Yemen is little developed.  It is believed that there are no more than 65,000 students in the whole country.

Population  

Yemen has an estimated population of 20 million.  Yemenis are mainly of Semitic origin.  Unlike other people of the Arabian Peninsula who have historically been nomads or semi-nomads, Yemenis are almost entirely sedentary and live in small villages and towns scattered throughout the highlands and coastal regions.  The country has one of the world"s highest birth rates; the average Yemeni woman bears seven children. Although this is similar to the rate in Somalia to the south, it is roughly twice as high as that of Saudi Arabia and nearly three times as high as those in the more modernized Gulf Arab states.

Capital    Sanaa

Languages   

Arabic is the official language and English is increasingly understood in major cities. In the Mahra area (the extreme east), several non-Arabic languages are spoken.  Yemen is one of the main homelands of the South Semitic family of languages, which includes the non-Arabic language of the ancient Sabaean Kingdom. Its modern Yemeni descendents are closely related to the modern Semitic languages of Ethiopia, including Amharic, the national language. However, only a small remnant of those languages exists in modern Yemen, notably on the island of Socotra and in the back hills of the Hadhramaut coastal region. Modern South Arabian languages spoken in Yemen include Mehri, with 70,643 speakers, Soqotri, with an estimated 43,000 speakers (2004 census) mainly on the island of Socotra, and Bathari (with an estimated total of only 200 speakers).

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