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Uzbekistan(乌兹别克斯坦)

2010-04-23 11:51:40 作者:english88 来源:english88 浏览次数:0 网友评论 0

UZBEKISTAN
History   
For thousands of years the present area of Uzbekistan was a part of the Persian Empire. Before the gradual arrival of the Turkic invaders the area was populated by the Persian-spea

UZBEKISTAN

\History  

For thousands of years the present area of Uzbekistan was a part of the Persian Empire. Before the gradual arrival of the Turkic invaders the area was populated by the Persian-speaking people of Iranian stock who still comprise a large minority in Uzbekistan and are called Tajiks today. The area was a bone of contention between the Uzbek emirs and the Persian Kings for many centuries.

In the 19th century, the Russian Empire began to expand, and spread into Central Asia. The "Great Game" period is generally regarded as running from approximately 1813 to the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907.  Following the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 a second less intensive phase followed.  Despite some early resistance to Bolsheviks, Uzbekistan and the rest of Central Asia became a part of the Soviet Union.  In 1924, following the establishment of Soviet rule, the Soviet Socialist Republic of Uzbekistan was founded from various territories.

In 1991, with the breakup of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan reluctantly declared its independence on 1 September 1991.  Islam Abduganievich Karimov has been the President of Uzbekistan since 1991.

GeographyMap of Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan is a dry, doubly landlocked country in Central Asia, of which 10% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. Uzbekistan shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south.

It is one of two double-landlocked countries in the world - the other being Liechtenstein, although in the case of Uzbekistan this is less clear, since it has borders with two countries (Kazakhstan in the north and Turkmenistan in the south) bordering the landlocked but non-freshwater   Caspian Sea from which ships can reach the Sea of Azov and thus the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea and the oceans.  The highest point in Uzbekistan is Adelunga Toghi at 4301 m.

Political System      

The President is the chief of state. The president is elected by popular votes for a seven-year term. The prime minister is the head of government.  The prime minister and deputy ministers are appointed by the president.  The Cabinet of Ministers is appointed by the president with the approval of the Supreme Assembly.

It used to have a unicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis (250 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms).  On 27 January 2002, a referendum was held to make the Assembly bicameral on the 2004 elections.  The bicameral parliament consists of a lower house (the Oliy Majlis) and an upper house (Senate). Members of the lower house are to be "full time" legislators.  Elections for the new bicameral parliament took place on 26 December 2004.

Education System  

The educational system has achieved 97% literacy, and the mean amount of schooling for both men and women is 11 years. However, due to budget constraints and other transitional problems following the collapse of the Soviet Union, texts and other school supplies, teaching methods, curricula, and educational institutions are outdated, inappropriate, and poorly kept.  Additionally, the proportion of school-aged persons enrolled has been dropping. Although the government is concerned about this, budgets remain tight.

Population  

Uzbekistan has an estimated population of 25 million.  It is Central Asia"s most populous country.  It The population are concentrated in the south and east of the country, are nearly half the region"s total population. Uzbekistan had been one of the poorest republics of the Soviet Union; much of its population was engaged in cotton farming in small rural communities. The population continues to be heavily rural and dependent on farming for its livelihood.  Uzbek is the predominant ethnic group. Other ethnic groups include Russian 5.5%, Tajik 15%, Korean 4.7%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, and Tatar 1.5%.

Capital    Tashkent (Toshkent)

Languages  

Uzbek is the official state language; however, Russian is the de facto language for interethnic communication, including day-to-day government and business use.

Religions   

The nation is of 88% Muslim and 9% Eastern Orthodox.

Economy  

Uzbekistan is now the world"s third largest cotton exporter, a major producer of gold and natural gas, and a regionally significant producer of chemicals and machinery.  Following independence in December 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. Faced with high rates of inflation, however, the government began to reform in mid-1994, by introducing tighter monetary policies, expanding privatization, slightly reducing the role of the state in the economy, and improving the environment for foreign investors. The state continues to be a dominating influence in the economy, and reforms have so far failed to bring about structural changes. The IMF suspended Uzbekistan"s US$185 million standby arrangement in late 1996 because of governmental steps that made fulfillment of Fund conditions impossible.  Uzbekistan has responded to the negative external conditions generated by the Asian and Russian financial crises by tightening export and currency controls within its already largely closed economy. In 2003, the government accepted the obligations under the International Monetary Fund (IMF), providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity.

Currency -   Som   

The currency of Uzbekistan is the Uzbekistani Som (currency code UZS).  The word "Som" (sometimes transliterated "Sum" or "Soum") means pure in Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uyghur, Uzbek as well as many other Turkic languages. The word implies pure gold. The Soviet ruble was called "Som" in Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Uzbek which are written on the back of the notes.  1 UZS is equal to 0.0007 Euro.

Main Sporting Events and Achievement in Olympics  

The traditional national sport is Kurash, and the popular sports in the country include soccer, wrestling and the orthodox horseback games which are played on special occasions.  Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in Uzbekistan.  There are 231 stadiums, 5,231 football fields, and a number of fields and halls for mini-football, serving a total of 36 football teams in Uzbekistan. The Football Championship and Uzbekistan Cup are held regularly in the country. Tennis is enjoyed almost as much as football. Tennis ranks second after football as the most popular spectator and participation sport.  The Tashkent Open Women"s Cup, which attracts professional players, is becoming increasingly popular.  Uzbekistan often hosts prestigious contests like the Asian Boxing Championship, the Asia and Oceania Taekwondo Championship, "A"-grade international freestyle wrestling tournaments.

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