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Afghanistan(阿富汗)

2010-04-23 09:34:37 作者:english88 来源:english88 浏览次数:0 网友评论 0


AFGHANISTAN

AFGHANISTAN

History

\

The Afghanistan nation-state came into existence in 1746 under the Durrani Empire, but control was ceded to Britain until King Amanullah ascended to the throne in 1919. During period of British intervention, ethnic Pashtun territories were divided by the Durand Line; such a division led to strained relations between Afghanistan and British India and later, Pakistan.

  

Since 1900, eleven rulers were unseated through undemocratic means. The last period of stability was between 1933 and 1973 when the country was under the rule of King Zahir Shah. In 1973, Zahir"s brother-in-law, Sardar Mohammed Daoud launched a bloodless coup. Daoud and his entire family were murdered in 1978 when the communist People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan launched a coup and took over the government. This was followed by opposition against and conflict within the series of leftist governments.

   The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979, but was forced to withdraw 10 years later by anti-Communist mujahidin forces. The Communist regime in Kabul collapsed in 1992. Fighting erupted among the various mujahidin factions, and this helped to spawn the Taliban, a hardline movement that fought to end warlordism and civil war that gripped the country. The Taliban seized Kabul in 1996 and captured most of the country outside of Northern Alliance strongholds primarily in the northeast.

  The United States and allied military action, in support of the opposition following the 11 September 2001 Terrorist Attacks, forced the Taliban’s downfall. In late 2001, major leaders from the Afghan opposition groups and diaspora met in Bonn, Germany and agreed on a plan for political reconstruction that resulted in the adoption of a new constitution and presidential election in 2004. On 9 October 2004, Hamid Karzai became the first democratically elected President of Afghanistan.

Geography

\

Afghanistan is situated in Central Asia and fringes upon south Asia; it is sometimes allocated to one of these regions. It is often considered part of the Middle East due to its location on the Iranian plateau. It is bordered by Iran in the west, Pakistan in the south and east, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north, and China in the easternmost part of the country. Afghanistan is a mountainous country with plains in the north and southwest. The highest point, at 7485 m above sea level, is Nowshak. Large parts of the country are dry, and fresh water supplies are limited. The country is frequently subject to earthquakes. The major cities of Afghanistan are its capital Kabul, Herat, Jalalabad, Mazar-e Sharif and Kandahar.

 

Political System

   According to the 2004 constitution, Afghanistan is run by a president, who is elected by direct popular vote to a five-year term. The president may only serve two terms. A candidate for president must be at least forty years of age, a Muslim, and a citizen of Afghanistan. A candidate has two vice-presidents. The president serves as head of state and government, and is commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president makes appointments for his cabinet as well as posts in the military, police force, and provincial governerships with the approval of parliament.

  The legislative body is a parliament consisting of two houses: the Wolesi Jirga (House of the People) and the Meshrano Jirga (House of Elders). The Wolesi Jirga consists of up to 250 members elected to five-year terms through direct elections in proportion to the population of each province. At least two women must be elected from each province. In the Meshrano Jirga, one-third of the members are elected by provincial councils for four years, one-third are elected by district councils of each province for three years, and one-third are appointed by the president for five years, of which half must be women.

  Education System

  In the spring of 2003, it was estimated that 30% of Afghanistan"s 7,000 schools had been seriously damaged during more than two decades of Soviet occupation and civil war. Only half of the schools were reported to have clean water, while less than an estimated 40% had adequate sanitation. Education for boys was not a priority during the Taliban regime, and girls were banished from schools outright. Up to four million Afghan children, possibly the largest number ever, are believed to have enrolled for class for the school year which began in March of 2003. Education is now available for both girls and boys.

   Education has been revitalized after the fall of the Taliban. Primary education lasts for six years. If a student does well in the entrance examination, he or she is admitted into Secondary education. Higher education is provided by mainly six universities in Afghanistan, which includes the University of Islamic Studies, an Agricultural Insitute, a Polytechnic, a State Medical Institute and two teacher training institutes. 

Population

  The country has an estimated population of 30 million. The population of Afghanistan is divided into a large number of ethnic groups. The ethnic distribution is as follows: Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%, Baloch 2%, others 4%.

Capital

  Kabul 

Languages

  The official languages of Afghanistan are Persian (local name: Dari) 50% and Pashtu 35%. Other languages include Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%. Also a small number of ethnic minorities, primarily Sikhs and Hindus, speak Punjabi. Bilingualism is common. 

Religions

  Afghans are overwhelmingly Muslim (approximately 84% Sunni and 15% Shi"a). There are also Hindu and Sikh minorities.

  Economy

  Afghanistan’s economy has improved significantly since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001 because of the infusion of over $2 billion in international assistance, recovery of the agricultural sector, and the re-establishment of market institutions. Agriculture boomed in 2003 with the end of a four-year drought, but drought conditions returned to the southern half of the country in 2004. Despite the progress of the past few years, Afghanistan remains extremely poor and highly dependent on foreign aid, farming, and trade with neighboring countries. It will probably take the remainder of the decade and continuing donor aid and attention to raise Afghanistan’s living standard up from its current status, which is among the lowest in the world. Much of the population continues to suffer from shortages of housing, clean water, electricity, medical care, and jobs.

 

Currency - Afghani

  The Afghani (currency code AFA) is currency used in Afghanistan. Prior to 2003, the afghani was valued at 43,000 AFA per USD. Prior to the US invasion, warlords, political parties, foreign powers and forgers each made their own afghanis, with no regard to standardisation or honoring serial numbers. On 2 January, 2003, a three-month transition period ended for the swapping of old afghani banknotes for new currency. The new afghani had three zeros knocked off, with the new afghani valued at 43 AFN per USD.

 

Main Sporting Events and Achievement in Olympics

  A popular and ancient sport unique to Afghanistan is the Buzkashi. The people of Afghanistan are renowned horsemen. Afghan hounds and running dogs originated from Afghanistan. Other popular sports in the country include soccer, basketball, volleyball, track, bowling and chess. Afghanistan first competed in the Summer Olympics in 1936, but was banned in 1999, during the Taliban rule, and was reinstated in 2002. Afghanistan returned to Olympic competition in 2004, including two female athletes (Friba Razayee and Robina Muqim Yaar) for the first time in the country’s history. In 2004, the Afghani athletes were attempting to improve upon Afghanistan’s best finish, Mohammed Ebrahimi’s fifth place in wrestling at the 1964 Summer Olympics.

 

Culture

  Afghans generally practice communal living. Afghan houses are traditionally made of a series of rooms located around a private rectangualr courtyard where women and children play, cook and socialize. Married sons share the same house as their parents, although they have separate quarters. Some Afghan houses contain a special room where men socialize with each other. In the cities many Afghans live in apartments. The nomadic population of Afghanistan lives in tents.

   Like many other Mid-Eastern countries, marriage is decided by the parents. The children are married at a young age and then sent back to live with their parents. After puberty, the children are sent to live with each other. In Afghanistan the divorce rate is low.

Many of the country’s historic monuments have been damaged in the recent wars. The two famous statues of Buddha in the Bamiyan Province were destroyed by the Taliban because they were regarded by them as being idolatrous. Other famous sites include the cities of Herat, Ghazni and Balkh. The Minaret of Jam, in the Hari Rud valley, is a UNESCO World Heritage site.

   During the 1990s, the Taliban government banned instrumental music and much public music-making. In spite of arrests and the destruction of musical instruments, Afghan musicians have continued to ply their trade into the present. The capital of Kabul has long been the regional cultural capital, but outsiders have tended to focus on the city of Herat, which is more closely related to Iranian music. Lyrics across the country are typically in Persian and Pashto.

阿富汗

历史\

  1746年,杜兰尼帝国(Durrani Empire)成立阿富汗民族国家,但是到1919Amanullah国王即位时,主权割让给了英国。在英国殖民的那段时间,普什图族(Pashtun)的领土被杜兰德线(Durand Line)分割,并且导致了阿富汗和英属印度以及后来出现的巴基斯坦的紧张关系。自1900年起共有11名统治者被通过非民主的手段拉下台。最后的一段稳定时期是1933年到1973年国王Zahir Shah统治时期。1973年,Zahir的姐夫Sardar Mohammed Daoud发动了一场和平政变。1978年阿富汗的共产主义人民民主政党发动政变,接管政府,Daoud及其所有家人都被谋杀。随后伴随着斗争及冲突出现了一系列的左翼政府。

  1979年,苏联入侵阿富汗,但在十年后因反共产主义的穆斯林游击队而被迫撤回。1992年,喀布尔的共产主义政权垮台。穆斯林游击队内的各派系发生内讧,促使了塔利班(Taliban)的出现。塔利班运动既是一场以强硬路线为主导、与军阀统治斗争到底的运动,也是一场席卷全国的内战。1996年,塔利班夺取喀布尔,并占领了除主要在东北活动的北方联盟之外的绝大部分领土。

  为了支持打击911恐怖袭击,美国与其它国家联合采取军事行动,迫使塔利班组织垮台。2001年下半年,阿富汗各反对组织的主要领导人和离散的犹太人在波恩(Bonn)会晤,并就采用新宪法和2004年总统大选的政治重建计划达成协议。2004109日哈密德卡尔扎伊(Hamid Karzai)成为阿富汗第一任民选总统。

地理\

  阿富汗地处中亚,连接南亚地区,有时它的领土也被划分给这些地区。因为它位处伊朗高原,也常被认为是中东的一部分。阿富汗西临伊朗,东部南部与巴基斯坦接壤,北到土库曼斯坦(Turkmenistan)、乌兹别克斯坦(Uzbekistan)、塔吉克斯坦(Tajikistan),中国就在它的最东部。阿富汗是个多山的国家,北部和西南部有平原。海拔最高点是Nowahak,有7485米。大部分地区干旱,可供应的水源非常有限,还常受地震之扰。阿富汗最大的城市是它的首都喀布尔,此外还有Herat、贾拉拉巴德(Jalalabad)、马扎尔沙里夫(Mazar-e Sharif)和坎大哈(Kandahar)。

政治体系

    根据2004年宪法,阿富汗由一位总统领导,任期五年,由民众直接选举产生。每位总统最多连任两届。总统候选人必须年满四十,是穆斯林,并且是阿富汗公民。一名候选人有两名副总统。总统作为国家和政府的首脑,是陆海空三军总司令,由他任命政府内阁,并且经议会同意即可任命军队、警察和省级的官员。

  立法机关由议会的两个机构组成:Wolesi Jirga(众议院)和Meshrano Jirga(参议院)。众议院由至少250人组成,成员根据各省人数按一定比例直接选举产生,任期五年。每个省必须选出两名女性议员。参议院中1/3的成员每四年由各省议会选举产生,还有1/3每三年由各省的行政区议会选举产生,最后的1/3成员由总统任命,任期五年,其中半数必须是女性。

教育体系

    根据2003年春的统计,苏联占领及内战的二十年里,阿富汗7000所学校中有30%遭到严重破坏。据报道,仅有一半的学校能够提供纯净水,估计有卫生设施的不到40%。在塔利班政权时期,教育并不是男孩子的首选,女孩子被完全排除在学校教育之外。20033月开始,有四百万孩子登记入学,可能是有史以来的最高人数。教育现在对男女都开放。

  教育在塔利班倒台之后重生。学生完成初等教育要6年,如果通过入学考试,就可以接受中等教育。阿富汗有6所学校提供高等教育,包括一所伊斯兰教研究大学、一所农业学院、一所工艺学校、一所国立医学院和两所教师进修学院。

人口

    阿富汗大约有3000万的人口,分属很多民族派别,具体数字如下:普什图人(Pashtun)占42%,塔吉克人(Tajik)占 27%,哈扎拉人(Hazara)占9%,乌兹别克人(Uzbek9%,爱马克人(Aimak4%,土库曼人(Turkmen3%,俾路支人(Baloch2%,还剩4%为其他民族。

首都   喀布尔(Kabul) 

语言  

  阿富汗的官方语言是波斯语(当地称为达里语)和普什图语(Pashtu),波斯语有50%的人使用,普什图语有35%的人口使用。还有其他语言包括11%人口使用的土耳其语(Turkic languages)(主要是乌兹别克人和土库曼人使用)和另外4%人口使用的30种少数语言(主要是俾路支语Balochi和帕夏语Pashai)。也有一些少数民族使用旁遮普语(Punjabi),主要是锡克教徒和印度教教徒。一般人都能说两种语言。

宗教信仰  

  阿富汗人绝大部分都是穆斯林(大约84%是逊尼派Sunni15%是什叶派Shi"a,还有少数为印度教教徒(Hindu)和锡克教徒(Sikh)。

经济  

  2001年塔利班政权垮台之后,由于来自国际上20亿美元的经济援助,以及农业的恢复和市场制度的重建,阿富汗经济得到显著发展。到2003年,长达四年之久的旱灾结束了,农业兴旺发展。然而2004年旱灾卷土重来,一半的南部地区受波及。尽管阿富汗在过去几年有所发展,但它地处内陆,高度依赖国外援助、农业和邻国贸易,因此仍很贫穷。估计需要通过十多年外部不断的关心和援助,才能使阿富汗摆脱目前世界上生活水平最低的困境。大量人口缺少住房、饮用水、电、医疗和工作。

货币―阿富汗尼(Afghani  

  阿富汗现在通用的货币是阿富汗尼(货币符号是AFA)。2003年之前,每43000阿富汗尼合一美元。美国入侵前,军阀、政党、外国势力和伪钞制造者都发行各自的阿富汗尼,没有固定的标准,号码也不遵循一定的顺序。200312号,经过3个月的过渡,新的货币取代了旧的阿富汗尼。新的阿富汗尼的汇率去掉了三个零,一美元可兑换43新阿富汗尼。

主要的运动项目和奥运上取得的成就

    阿富汗独有的一项古老的民众体育活动是马背叼羊。阿富汗人是著名的马背上的民族。猎犬和赛跑用的狗也都是源自阿富汗。这个国家还有些民间运动为足球、篮球、排球、轨迹、保龄球和国际象棋。阿富汗第一次参加夏季奥运会是在1936年,但从1999年开始的塔利班统治期间阿富汗禁止参加奥运会。在2002年恢复奥委会合法席位。2004年,阿富汗重返奥运,此次因有两位女运动员参加而成为该国历史上首次有女性参与的奥运会。2004年的奥运会中,阿富汗运动员试图打破1964Mohammed Ebrahimi在摔跤比赛中取得的第五名的最佳成绩。

文化 

  阿富汗人通常是同一民族聚居。传统的阿富汗民居由一排房屋圈建而成的院落,中间的私人庭院是妇女和孩子玩耍、做饭、交流的地方。结了婚的儿子会跟他们的父母住在一起,他们有各自分开的房间。有些阿富汗民居会有一间主要的客厅,这是男人的社交场所。在城市中,许多阿富汗人是住公寓地。而阿富汗的游牧人口则住在帐篷里。

   就像其他中东国家一样,子女的婚姻是由父母决定的。孩子在很小的时候就结婚,之后再回去跟父母一起住。经过变化不定的青春期,孩子们才被安排与结婚的对方住在一起。阿富汗的离婚率很低。

  近年的战争中,阿富汗有很多历史遗迹被毁坏,巴米扬(Bamiyan)省就有两座著名的佛像因被认为是盲目崇拜的对象而遭塔利班破坏。其他被损的著名遗迹还有赫拉特(Herat)、加兹尼(Ghazni)和大夏(Balkh)城。在Hari Rud谷的Jam塔是联合国教科文组织(UNESCO)批准的世界文化遗产,它也在被毁之列。

  20世纪90年代,塔利班政府禁止了器乐和民间音乐的创作。然而即便会遭拘捕、乐器会被毁坏,阿富汗的音乐人还是不断地从事这项事业,直到现在。首都喀布尔(Kabul)长久以来都是该国的宗教文化的中心,不过外国人通常都集中在Herat城,这里的音乐跟伊朗音乐更接近些。诗词创作的最具特色的地方则是波斯(Persian)和普什图(Pashto)两地

关键词:阿富汗学英语

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