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上海的昨天和今天

2010-04-23 09:32:38 作者:english88 来源:english88 浏览次数:0 网友评论 0

上海的昨天和今天
 Origin of "Hu" and "Shen"“申”、“沪”的由来
上海的昨天和今天
\ Origin of "Hu" and "Shen"“申”、“沪”的由来
Shanghai is called in Chinese "Hu" for short and "Shen" as a nickname. About 6,000 years ago, the western part of today's Shanghai dried up into land and its eastern part became a piece of land about 2,000 years ago. During the Spring-Autumn and Warring States Periods (770-221 BC), this area was once the feoff of Huang Xie, the Chun Shen Governor of the State of Chu. So, "Shen" comes from the title of the governor. During the Jin Dynasty (4th-5th centuries), fishermen living along the Songjiang River (today's Suzhou Creek) and the coast of the East China Sea created a fishing tool called "Hu." By combining the name of the fishing tool and the then term for estuary of big rivers, they coined a Chinese character "Hu" to name the place as it sits at the mouth of the Yangtze River, the longest river in China.
上海,简称“沪”,别称“申”。大约在六千年前,现在的上海西部即已成陆,东部地区成陆也有两千年之久。相传春秋战国时期,上海曾经是楚国春申君黄歇的封 邑,故上海别称为“申”。公元四、五世纪时的晋朝,松江(现名苏州河)和滨海一带的居民多以捕鱼为生,他们创造了一种竹编的捕鱼工具叫“扈”,又因为当时 江流入海处称“渎”,因此,松江下游一带被称为“扈渎”,以后又改“扈”为“沪”。
Founding of the City上海建城
Shanghai began as Huating County, an administrative district established in 751 AD. The county, located in an area known today as Songjiang District, had its boundary reaching today's Hongkou District in the north, Xiasha in the east and the coast in the south. In 991 AD, Shanghai Town was set up in the county. During the 1260-1274 period, the town evolved into an important trading port and in 1292, the then central government approved the establishment of Shanghai County in this area, which has been widely deemed as the official beginning of the city of Shanghai.
公元751年(唐天宝十年),上海地区属华亭县(现今的松江区),范围北到今天的虹口一带,南到海边,东到下沙。公元991年(宋淳化二年)因松江上游不 断淤浅,海岸线东移,大船出入不便,外来船舶只得停泊在松江的一条支流“上海浦”(其位置在今外滩以东至十六铺附近的黄浦江中)上,公元1267年(南宋 咸淳三年)在上海浦西岸设置市镇,定名为上海镇。公元1292年(元至元二十九年),元朝中央政府把上海镇从华亭县划出,批准上海设立上海县,标志着上海 建城之始。
Modern Age近代上海
In the 16th century (or the middle period of the Ming Dynasty), Shanghai became the national center of textile & handicraft industry. In 1685, Shanghai set up its first customs office. After the Opium War in the mid-19th century, Shanghai served as a major trading port and gateway to inland China. With invasion of the big powers from across the world, Shanghai was then turned into a semi-feudal and semi-colonial city for about 100 year. On May 27, 1949, Shanghai was liberated by the People's Liberation Army of the Communist Party of China from the Kuomingtang rule and began to write its chapter in the history of the development of New China.
16世纪(明代中叶)上海成为全国棉纺织手工业的中心。公元1685年(清康熙二十四年)清政府在上海设立海关。19世纪中叶,上海已成为商贾云集的繁华 港口。鸦片战争以后,上海被殖民主义者开辟为“通商”口岸。在此后的一百年里,外国列强纷纷入侵上海,使上海成了帝国主义对中国进行政治、经济、文化侵略 的主要据点。1949年5月27日,上海这个具有光荣革命传统的城市获得解放,开始新生。
Historic Transformation 历史性变革
Shanghai has undergone a historic transformation since its liberation on May 27, 1949. In the past more than 50 years, fundamental changes have taken place in this once semi-feudal and semi-colonial city. Particularly, since the Chinese government adopted the reform and opening policy in 1978, Shanghai has witnessed marked progresses in its social and economic development, thanks to the distinctive strategies adopted by the city government applicable to the advancement of a megalopolis like Shanghai. Today, Shanghai is the largest economic and transportation center in China. It also enjoys a reputation as a famed historical city in the country. Now, the city is striving to turn itself into one of the economic, financial, trade and transportation centers in the world. It also aims to lead the country in building a well-off society and in achieving the initial modernization.
上海的解放揭开了上海发展新的历史篇章。在中国共产党的领导下,上海人民经过50多年的艰苦奋斗,从根本上改造了在半殖民地、半封建条件下畸形发展起来的 旧上海,使上海的经济和社会面貌发生了深刻的变化。特别是1978年以来,上海的改革开放力度不断加大,上海人民以强烈的进取精神,解放思想,与时俱进, 大胆实践,走出了一条具有中国特色、体现时代特征、符合上海特大型城市特点的发展新路,使上海经济和社会发展的各个领域发生了历史性的大变革,已成为我国 最大的经济中心和国家历史文化名城,并正向建成国际经济、金融、贸易和航运中心之一的目标迈进。
关键词:上海学英语

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